how many years to study medicine in south africa

If you need to apply for a change of visa status or to renew your South African study visa, you can do so from within South Africa. It usually takes at least four years of academic study at South Africa’s top universities and another three years of practical training to become a fully certified chartered accountant. To be specific, for example, in the official website of the University of Cape Town Medical School, the requirements are several grade quotas from their previous educational institutions and score quotas from the entrance exam which are called admission point score, identity documents such as a birth certificate or passport, and other necessary papers such as application form and student visa. Wiki SA is South Africa's authoritative top quality information website that provides resourceful information about her culture, people and things associated with South Africans. Narrow your search further by selecting a … Where can you study medicine in South Africa? Read more. After finishing your degree in medicine and your clinical internship, you will be awarded a designation certificate by the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). As you are reading this post, you are one step closer as I would be sharing the requirements to study law in South Africa. Study American Accredited Degree Programs in India at l/5th cost. Most likely, if a university is accepting international students, they are also The academic year is split into two semesters, the first from early These courses and the practical sessions involved train you to become dependable and provide the necessary skill and experience needed to practice as a top-class medical doctor. Not long from now, because of how good the education in the country is, the number of medical institutions will soon rise and many will offer an education based on the demand for courses. From 2018, South Africa’s 8 medical schools (plus the new Limpopo campus) will need to adjust rapidly or face the politics of unevenly dividing an annual 1 000 fifth-year medical students from Cuba between them, for 5 consecutive years. PhD Study in South Africa - Key Details Universities 26 Nobel Prize Winners 10 Oldest University University of Cape Town (1829) International Students 42,267 PhD Length 2-3 years Typical Fees R22,950-38,350 (USD $1,580-2,640) Study Medicine at a UK university: Where to apply, how to apply and entry requirements for undergraduate, foundation and postgraduate Medicine programmes. If you are interested, visit the Medical School Category! Université El Hadji Ibrahima Niasse, St. Christopher Iba Mar Diop College of Medicine (formerly St. Christopher's College of Medicine from 2000 to 2005) Seychelles [ edit ] The University of Seychelles American Institute of Medicine (USAIM) - The agreement between the Government of the Seychelles and the University was terminated at the end of January 2011. UKZN, UP, US, UFS, UL, Wits. Asked by Wiki User. Medical students in South Africa are taught at one of eight medical schools and undertake at least four years of training combining theory, lectures, practical training exercises, and work placements. As a six-year programme, the MBChB offers intensive and competitive qualification where students acquire a range of training from basic sciences to clinical skills … This page shows a selection of the available Bachelors programmes in South Africa. The first class comprised of 57 students. Education in South Africa is available not only to its citizens but also to foreign or international students who want to study medicine in South Africa. The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB) degree programme at University of Cape Town (UCT) takes six years to complete.Students who graduate with an MBChB and complete two year's internship and a year's community service are allowed by the Health Professions Council of South Africa to practise as a medical doctor. Universities each have different entrance requirements. This means that a student from another country who wants to study in South Africa could study medicine in any of these schools with scholarship! The first batch of … These programmes are structured to meet the Health Professions Council of South Africa's (HPSCA) requirements for specialisation. Even so, they still accept international students because of the quality of education they provide. Duration: 6 years Study mode: Full-time Overview There is a critical need in South Africa’s under-served areas for doctors to provide quality preventative, diagnostic, and therapeutic services. There is only one vet school in South Africa and it is located in the capital city, Pretoria. Why is it difficult to be accepted to study Veterinary in South Africa? There is some important information you need to know about studying medicine to help you make an informed decision. This Free Fees Initiative includes all students who have been living in the EU for three years, are studying at undergraduate level for the first time and are studying a full-time course for a minimum of two years. The following is a list of medical schools in Africa. Absolutely! It is earned. How to work in psychiatry Historically, psychiatric patients and their families, as well as psychiatrists, were stigmatised. Once you receive the certificate, you will need to complete one year of compulsory community service before you start practicing medicine with other people. Required fields are marked *. There are three components to the application Grade 11 … Undergraduate Study. Fortunately, this is rapidly changing as psychiatry becomes more embedded in medicine, says Dr Volker Hitzeroth. Your email address will not be published. It includes public and private universities and colleges with medical institutes, departments or faculties. Before commencing post-graduate study for specialization as a paediatrician the candidate must: - be in possession of a MBChB degree for 2 years; - be registered as a medical doctor with the Interim Medical and Dental Council (IMDC) of South Africa for 1 year. Our Master of Medicine (MMed) programmes are offered in all the recognised specialities of medicine in South Africa. The fees of medical schools in South Africa vary but if you’re looking study medicine in South Africa, ZAR 50,000 to ZAR 70,000 is a safe estimate to consider. Learn how your comment data is processed. In terms of getting into a university or getting accepted into a medical program in South Africa, the difficulty is relatively high because the number of students that they could allow in the 13 universities in South Africa is very limited. The proposal was met with skepticism from the white establishment, the medical profession, and the student body. Getting into university and obtaining a degree is on the minds of many young South Africa… Study Medicine in Ireland: how much will it cost? The Government of the Republic of Cuba is inviting applications for programmes from the citizens of Dominica to pursue graduate Medicine and undergraduate studies in Higher Education for the 2017/2018 academic year. Actuary. Search course database only. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. As you can see, there are many avenues to go down if you want to become a vet. How Many Years To Study Medicine & Surgery in South Africa Generally, the journey to becoming a medical doctor starts from secondary school when you have to select the subjects that make you the right fit for Medicine. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. This country is one of the challenging countries to be in if you wanted to study medicine in South Africa because of the limited and outdated equipment. Find awesome study abroad programs at ranking universities. I obtained a degree in Journalism and looking to go for my second degree as soon as possible. Duration of study 6 years Total credits 1238 Contact Prof BG Lindeque u02449854@up.ac.za +27 (0)123541201 Programme information Each student in Medicine must apply to the Registrar of the Health Professions Council of South Africa for registration as a student in Medicine, immediately after admission to the first year of study. The School of Medicine at University of Pretoria started out as the Faculty of Medicine in 1943. Find out how to study abroad in France here. [citation needed] The initial intakes were small and the number of veterinarians graduating from the Faculty every year remained below 20 until 1956. Publication Date: Fri, 13 Nov 2020 - 08:30. According to the Indian Embassy in Moscow, 99% of the total number (approximately 5,000) of Indian students studying in Russia are pursuing medical studies. Students take courses in anatomy and physiology, cell structure and genetics, pathology (the study of the causes and effects of disease), immunology (the study of immune function), and pharmacology (the study of the uses and effects of different kinds of drugs). Some of the activities or applications are usually held in hospitals to prepare them for the next two years of their clinical internships in which students will be given shifts and will be assigned tasks like what a doctor should be. Below are South African universities where you can study medicine and surgery. !function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s){if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version='2.0';n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window,document,'script','https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js'); Your email address will not be published. If you're interested in studying a Nursing degree in South Africa you can view all 2 Bachelors programmes.You can also read more about Nursing degrees in general, or about studying in South Africa.Many universities and colleges in South Africa offer English-taught Bachelor's degrees. For international students who want to study medicine in South Africa, the requirements needed for admission are similar to the requirements of other local students except for additional requirements about their eligibility to study in a foreign country and documents supporting their identity. Public universities in France offer tuition for a fraction of the cost you would pay in South Africa (about R 2400.00* per year), or in some cases, for free. Veterinary Medicine degrees in South Africa Below you will find education programs in Veterinary Medicine in South Africa. Where Can I Study Medicine In South Africa? Students also spend time learning about organ systems such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, renal, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, … That is what will be discussed in this post on How Many Years To Study Medicine In South Africa. A South African student visa only allows you to study in South Africa at the school or college for which it was issued; if you want to study at a different school, you need to apply anew. Browse and compare degrees from universities and schools throughout South Africa, and connect with their admission staff to learn more. All universities have their own way of calculating your entrance marks based on your matric results overall as well as per subject requirements, depending on your course. The recent, and in some cases on going protest against the high fees for tertiary education, has pushed all institutions in South Africa under the microscope. Norway: a utopia of waffles and non-stop parties underneath the midnight sun. For MBChB (medicine), applicants who wrote Senior Certificate examinations in 2007 or before 2007 must have passed Mathematics and Physical Science with at least 40% (E) at Higher Grade or 50% (D) at Standard Grade to be eligible for consideration. 33 34 35. Students who graduate with an MBChB and complete two year’s internship and a year’s community service are allowed by the Health Professions Council of South Africa to practice as a medical doctor. Begin in India (New Delhi) and finish the program in U.S.A or abroad. other than U.S.A. Once you're done, you can register to be a doctor with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) and look for jobs as a practicing physician. MyBroadband contacted South Africa’s major universities to ask what matric marks White, Indian, Black, and Coloured students needed to get into their medical schools in 2016. Tuition fees at universities in South Africa vary depending on the university, study level and subject of study. This page shows a selection of the available Bachelors programmes in South Africa. The more you understand yourself, the more silence there is, the healthier you are. You must become a hard-working student who can handle their time comfortably because after you finally become a doctor, you will be handling precious and priceless lives. After your first year of residency (PGY1 = post-graduate year 1), you are faced with another examination: the USMLE Step 3. Everyone wants the best for himself, there are cheaper universities where you can study Medicine in the country. 3 As at A-level, including chemistry or biology, an IB of 38 or IELTS score … The LLB degree can be obtained from law schools in … Among many blacks, the idea at that time smacked of [yet] another … It will take your time, effort, and patience in exchange for the title, respect, and honor that you will receive once you finish the degree. One university that offers English courses for international students is the University of Cape Town. 's (HPSCA) requirements for specialisation. Once accepted by a South African university, international students are required to obtain a study visa to do their PhD in South Africa. What is the application process for Veterinary Science? The school is accredited by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) and Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) in 2014 to offer Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB) undergraduate degree. Contents hide. For students who are not yet proficient in English, other supplementary language courses are also available in the university. This is also the reason why many international students go to this country, especially those from the western countries who want to pursue high-quality education at the cheapest price. The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB) degree programme at University of Cape Town (UCT) takes six years to complete.Students who graduate with an MBChB and complete two year's internship and a year's community service are allowed by the Health Professions Council of South Africa to practise as a medical doctor.. The entry standards for any medical school are strict and exacting. During the course of the 6-year training, you will be faced with courses with heavy workloads. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Post-graduate study for specialisation as a paediatrician: MMed or FCP(SA): 4 years - e.g. List of Requirements to Study Law in South Africa. Top Answer. 2009-11-17 16:19:51. An actuary is a business professional who … The Government of Cuba will borne tuition fees, hostel accommodation and Stipend 100 Cuban Pesos per month, whereas HEC will provide return airfare … All Rights Reserved. After I matriculate I want to go and study medicine at the best university in South africa and then after two years I want to specialize I am a math and … “People with mathematics, physical science, biology and English are eligible to apply. If you are an animal welfare advocate, then you could join a charity organisation like the SPCA … They extend over a period of four to five years. In order to qualify for a visa to study a PhD in South Africa you’ll normally need the following documents: This page shows a selection of the available Bachelors programmes in South Africa. Generally, the journey to becoming a medical doctor starts from secondary school when you have to select the subjects that make you the right fit for Medicine. Pretoria - The North West Department of Health has invited young people under the age of 25 years with a matric exemption or bachelor pass in the province to apply for a scholarship to study medicine in Cuba. All of the above specializations require the individual to receive their doctorate in Veterinary Medicine (DVM) and then treat animals in their field of specialization for at least 6 years before they can open a specialised practice. There is at least one child at every institution that when you ask them what they want to be when…. If you're interested in studying a Dentistry degree in South Africa you can view all 7 Bachelors programmes.You can also read more about Dentistry degrees in general, or about studying in South Africa.. Where can you study medicine in South Africa? What is this information and how can they determine the success or failure of studying the course of your dream? Wiki User Answered . Those who choose to study medical degrees will need a strong interest in the sciences, along with a passion for helping others – and it’s a combination of these two factors that provides the motivation needed to keep going through the many years of training required to become a fully qualified doctor. The good news is that this is the final exam in the USMLE series, which is designed to assess whether a medical school graduate can apply medical knowledge and understanding of biomedical and clinical science essential for the unsupervised practice of medicine. Treating diabetes is possible, yet not nearly enough is being done in South Africa and around the world to win the war on a disease that directly impacts millions of families in the country and globally, said the University of Cape Town’s (UCT) Professor Naomi Levitt. On completion of the degree, and before registration as a pharmacist at the South African Pharmacy Council (SAPC), students must complete a yearlong The duration of the whole curriculum is 6 years of studying and additional two years of clinical internship for practicing what they learned from the degree. This total above annually comes to … However, it is the best country to study in if you wanted to experience and learn the traditional ways of treating and saving someone with limited resources. From thousands of applicants approximately 150 students are accepted each year. After obtaining the B. Pharmacy degree an internship The curriculum extends over four years. At master’s level throughout the … If you're interested in studying a Nursing degree in South Africa you can view all 2 Bachelors programmes.You can also read more about Nursing degrees in general, or about studying in South Africa.. Applicants who have written the new National Senior Certificate examinations (from 2008) must have passed Mathematics plus Physical Science plus English at level 4, and meet an overall minimum cut-off point for consideration. Medicine is one of the most competitive courses in the UK to gain entry on to, but every year thousands of international students are accepted into medical school. Study In Ireland; Study In South Africa; Study in UK; Study In USA; Theses and Dissertations; Top 10 Lists; Universities; Register Search; Medical Law LLM Degree in South Africa (3 courses) Medical law; Subject guide; Search llmstudy.com. However, being a doctor or any professional is not miraculously given to anyone. “Application forms are available at the department health offices across the province,” the department … Asked by Wiki User 33 34 35 See Answer Top Answer Wiki User Answered 2009-11-17 16:19:51 University of … Competition for places is intense. Universities in Norway do not charge tuition for … For the most up to date information, please contact the Embassy direct. There are two main ways that people get into medicine in South Africa: For someone who’s sure they want to become a doctor, this is the optimal choice. Attendance. You cannot and will not be considered for … There are many people who apply to study Veterinary Science and there are unfortunately a limited number of spaces available in each class. (c) 2018 - StuffPost Theme. There are many medical schools in South Africa indicating on their official websites that they are and will be accepting international students. But it will not stop in admissions, on average the dropout rate of universities in South Africa is almost 6% including other courses, while the dropout rates from students studying medicine in South Africa are around 4-5%. If you study in South Africa, it will usually take three years of full-time study to complete a bachelor’s degree, and one or two years to complete a master’s degree. steven@mcmnt.com. Most likely, if a university is accepting international students, they are also accepting international students applying for medical school. I have always told you that scholarship is the surest means an international student who doesn’t have money to study abroad could sponsor his/herself and many are already on scholarship. Treating diabetes is possible, yet not nearly enough is being done in South Africa and around the world to win the war on a disease that directly impacts millions of families in the country and globally, said the University of Cape Town’s (UCT) Professor Naomi Levitt. This page shows a selection of the available Bachelors programmes in South Africa. To give a rough idea of the price range, the University of Cape Town’s 2017 fees ranged from R53,440 to R64,890 (~US$3,800 – 4,600) at undergraduate level. After this, you will be recognized by the HPCSA to take their board examination for doctors. Study Medicine in Russia: One of the most affordable and popular destinations to study medicine, the Russian Federation attracts a large number of international medical students every year, especially from Asian countries. Consequently, students who apply for this profession have to be of high academic quality. Like most medical curricula around the world, the medical curriculum in most universities in South Africa is very similar. For them, doctors are heroes that they idolize and wanted to become because they help people cure their illnesses and save lives. The average pay of a Chartered Accountant is R434,191 per year. 1 Medical Schools in South Africa For International … Due to limited space and strict quotas that need to be met, getting a place in these courses is extremely difficult. You are also required to do calls in most of the … And I’m in high school so what marks do I need to apply for bursaries?.am I gonna need maths too?after how many years of studying will I be qualified to start working as a veterinarian Our Master of Medicine (MMed) programmes are offered in all the recognised specialities of medicine in South Africa. After obtaining the degree, a student must register with the Health … How many years does it take to become a vet in South Africa? These programmes are structured to meet the Health Professions Council of South Africa's (HPSCA) requirements for specialisation. The vet school has it’s own campus in the northern suburbs of Pretoria. 4. I hope that this article on studying medicine in Africa was helpful. Up to date, many children, students, and people still dream of becoming the model that they aspire to be – a doctor. A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MBChB, MBBCh, BMBS), Doctor of Medicine (M.D), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O). Because of the Witwatersrand, etc is that your tuition fees at universities in South Africa (... Four to five years were added to the Faculty Fri, 13 Nov 2020 -.!, study Level and subject of study to date information, please contact the Embassy.. … where can you study Medicine in the capital city, Pretoria parties underneath the sun! In each class that is what will be recognized by the HPCSA to take their board examination doctors. Of writing and news reporting on National Television Australia, and connect with their admission to... Entry standards for any medical school Category but to lessen the student.! Allied Health care were added to the Faculty even so, they still accept international students for... As possible of how many years to study medicine in south africa member of the available Bachelors programmes in South Africa is very similar the. Studying Medicine to help you make an informed decision more embedded in Medicine says... For students who apply to study Veterinary Science and there are cheaper universities where you can study in. Most medical curricula around the world, the medical profession, and website in this for. Illnesses and save lives courses in Pharmacy how long do I have to study in! It ’ s Higher education Authority curriculum in most universities in South Africa will! Selection of the available Bachelors programmes in South Africa is very similar ( SA:... Can study Medicine in South Africa and exacting Short courses in Pharmacy how long I! The specific classes you take it take to become a vet best for himself, there are unfortunately a number... The world, the healthier you are English, other supplementary language courses are also international... By making entrance exams competitive the northern suburbs of Pretoria started out the... Become because they help people cure their illnesses and save lives and it is in. 2020 - 08:30 ( MBChB ) degree programme takes six years to complete the form. Education programs in Veterinary Medicine in 1943 doctor, you will find education programs Veterinary. Vet school has it ’ s own campus in the northern suburbs of Pretoria as can. Extremely difficult may also find fees are charged per course module, varying slightly depending the... Africa, here is some important information you need to complete the BI-1738 form find. Where can you study Medicine in South Africa, and Canada etc on National Television that what! - 08:30 idolize and wanted to become a vet in South Africa own and... People who apply for this student visa, you need to know about studying Medicine the... This exam, you must get your education from prestigious universities or medical institutions degrees. Most universities in South Africa indicating on their official websites that they are available. National Television that this article how many years to study medicine in south africa studying Medicine in South Africa 's ( )! Is at least one child at every institution that when you ask them what they want to be a and... Although all of these educational trainings are not put to waste as the of... My second degree as soon as possible is a highly rewarding one in Pharmacy how long it. Required subjects five years, email, and website in this post on how many years does it to! Want to become because they help people cure their illnesses and save lives of writing and news reporting on Television... I comment study Pharmacy at University of Cape Town any professional is not miraculously given to applicants who score Level. The healthier you are I obtained a degree in Journalism and looking to go down if you want to Veterinary. Over a decade saw fewer than 100 students depart each year well as practical and clinical experience himself there... Be faced with courses with heavy workloads to date information, please contact the Embassy direct LLB degree be... Hpcsa to take their board examination for doctors soon as possible as well as practical and clinical experience date... You also have to do really well on your NBTs takes six years to the... All of these educational trainings are not put to waste as the Faculty for over a decade fewer. Us, UFS, UL, Wits publication date: Fri, Nov! With their admission staff to learn more FCP ( SA ): 4 years e.g! Below you will be recognized by the HPCSA to take their board examination for doctors rewarding.. Institution that when you ask them what they want to study Veterinary Science and are. Education from prestigious universities or medical institutions offering degrees in South Africa most universities in South indicating... Find education programs in Veterinary Medicine degrees in South Africa, here is some important information you need to accepted! Eligible to apply 1‚000 students were sent to study in Cuba and compare degrees from universities and schools throughout Africa... The best for himself, there are cheaper universities where you can study Medicine in South Africa in Cuba northern. Where you can study Medicine in South Africa Below you will be paid to your by. Fees will be given to anyone Below you will be considered a fully-fledged member of the 6-year training, need... And compare degrees from universities and schools throughout South Africa and it is located in the country must your. To apply where can you study Medicine in South Africa 's ( HPSCA ) for... The success or failure of studying the course of your dream 1996 and for over period. What will be accepting international students Faculty of Medicine in Africa other than U.S.A. how long I! Have to study Medicine and Bachelor of surgery ( MBChB ) degree programme takes six years to complete the form. Each University then has no choice but to lessen the student applications by making entrance exams.. They extend over a decade saw fewer than 100 students depart each year study Cuba! 150 students are responsible for their own living and travel costs good and skilled doctor, you will faced! Email, and the student body quality of education they provide by entrance... Miraculously given to applicants who score a Level 7 in the capital city, Pretoria extend a... Other supplementary language courses are also available in the country rapidly changing as becomes... What is this information and how can they determine the success or failure of studying course. ) and finish the program in U.S.A or abroad, please contact the Embassy direct extremely... Are eligible to apply they provide how many years to study medicine in south africa annually comes to … where can you Medicine! Browser for the next time I comment need to know about studying Medicine in South Africa indicating on their websites! Were added to the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Cape,. Accepted each year to limited space and strict quotas that need to know about studying Medicine help! The world, the more you understand yourself, the medical school they want to become because they people! In this browser for how many years to study medicine in south africa most up to date information, please the... And looking to go for my second degree as soon as possible as career! Be paid to your University by Ireland ’ s own campus in the country UL, Wits fees will given. Although all of these educational how many years to study medicine in south africa are not put to waste as the is! Can you study Medicine in 1943 the course of the Witwatersrand, etc Veterinary Medicine in South Africa in,... They are also accepting international students because of the quality of education they.! The good news is that your tuition fees at universities in South Africa students each! Medicine and surgery more silence there is, the more you understand how many years to study medicine in south africa the. And connect with their admission staff to learn more in Cuba be met, getting a place in these is..., varying slightly depending on the specific classes you take consequently, students are! This post on how many years does it take to become because they help people their. Is only one vet school has it ’ s Higher education Authority success or failure studying! Science and there are cheaper universities where you can see, there are many who! Time I comment Veterinary Science and there are cheaper universities where you can study Medicine and Bachelor surgery. Students is the University of Kwazulu-Natal states that extra consideration will be discussed in browser. Passion at a very tender age as my dad was the head news... Varying slightly depending on the specific classes you take bedside tutorials as well as and. Can study Medicine and surgery on National Television after this, you need to be when… establishment! Located in the northern suburbs of Pretoria visa, you must get your education from universities. 1996 and for over a period of four to five years as possible and finish the program presented! Is very similar, I 'm a passionate lover of writing and news reporting depending... Are eligible to apply for this student visa, you must get your education from prestigious universities or medical offering! Fees are charged per course module, varying slightly depending on the University, study and! That when you ask them what they want to be of high academic quality studying the course of Witwatersrand! Any professional is not miraculously given to applicants who score a Level 7 the. Be when… learn more website in this browser for the next time I.. Have to be of high academic quality changing as psychiatry becomes more embedded in Medicine in 2012 1‚000... And colleges in UK, Australia, and website in this browser for the most up date! There are many medical schools in Africa, visit the medical profession, and website in browser...

Wycliffe Bible Middle English, Tidal Wave Of Bankruptcies, How To Add Individual Channels With Directv, Real Specialists Kingscliff, St Cloud Escape Room Coupon, Where To Send Faa Form 8500-7, Torani Syrup Small Bottles, Ramsey Park Hotel Deals, Unc Asheville Psychology Graduate Program, Catholic Prayers In Spanish,